Tuesday, May 10, 2016

Second Semester Exam STUDY GUIDE

World Cultural Geography Second Semester Exam-Apollo Team

Multiple Choice:  Identify the choice that best completes the statement or best answers the question.

1. Deforestation in China has resulted in

2.  Although North Korea is rich in mineral resources, it

3.  Mongolia is a predominantly _________________ country.

4.  Japanese people are the sole practitioners of which religion?

5.  The population of East Asia is concentrated in

6.  The service sector has recruited English speaking people from which country?

7.  Which is true regarding Russia’s fishing industry?

8.   The Kamchatka Peninsula has _________________________

9.  An area of rich soil whose farms feed most Russians is known as_______________.

10.  The Amur River forms a natural border between parts of ____________________.

11.  Moscow is connected to the Caspian Sea by the ______________ River.

12.  Which part of Europe has the most advanced communications and transportation systems?

13.  The Himalaya Mountains separate India from the rest of ____________.

14.  Due to the presence of swift-moving rivers, Nepal has strong potential for _____________.

15.  The Ganges River Plain is the most heavily ______________ region on Earth.

16.  All Hindus are expected to visit the _________________ River for religious purposes.

17.  In the Hindu religion, it is believed that after a person dies, the spirit_________________

18.  The largest religious group in India is ____________________.

19.  Tourists come to India to see the ___________________.

20.  The Hindu belief that people build-up good or bad that follows to the next life is called____

21. East Asia’s rivers are swift moving, making them capable of producing_____________

22. A tsunami is the result of which phenomena?

23.  A ____________ is a powerful storm in the Western Pacific Ocean.

24.  Africa’s Great Rift Valley is being formed by ______________________

25.  The Great Rift Valley has _____________________

26.  Africa’s longest mountain range is the _________________________

27.  Earth’s largest inland body of water is the _______________________

28.  The longest river in the world is the ________________________

29.  In Sri Lanka, large plantations grow _________________ for export.

30.  A problem caused by growing cash crops on large plantations is that there is precious little land left to _____________________.

31.  Most South Asians work as ___________________

32.  South Asia’s environmental problems are caused by __________________

33.  China’s interior deserts are _______________________

34.  Mount Fuji is located on which of the four main islands of Japan?

35.  Most of the mountainous islands of East Asia were formed by_____________

36.  Japan’s largest island is ____________________________

37.  One-third of the world’s shipping traffic is located on the ____________________

38.  A Japanese art form which incorporates paper folded into various shapes is ______

39.  The _________________ is the world’s oldest and longest man-made waterway.

40.  China’s ___________________ is its major waterway.

41.  The forced separation of the races in South Africa was called__________________________.

42.  Lagos is the largest city in Africa, South of the ______________________________________.

43.  The most densely populated country South of the Sahara Desert is_________________________.

44.  Victoria is Africa’s ____________________________.

45.  The band of dry land on the Southern edge of the Sahara Desert is known as the________________.

46.  Poaching is the term that identifies__________________________________.

47.  East of Africa is a large island that is considered to be a part of the continent of Africa, known as________________________.

48.  The movement of people from rural areas to cities is known as______________________________.

49.  The practice of passing stories from generation to generation is known as_____________________.

50.  Tanzania, Kenya, and Rwanda encourage ________________ due to concern for the environment.

Thursday, February 18, 2016

Chapter 14 Study Guide for Apollo

Chapter 14, Section 1

Terms to Know
chernozem - A rich, black soil (page 346)
hydroelectric power - Electric power generated by falling water (page 348)
permafrost - A layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground that stays frozen year-round (page 349)

Introduction (page 345) The Soviet Union broke up into 15 republics in 1991. Russia is the largest of these republics.

A Vast and Varied Land (page 345) Russia is the world’s largest country in land area. Much of its land is made up of mountains and plateaus.
A.  The Ural Mountains divide European Russia from Asian Russia.  The Urals are an old, worn-down range.
B.  The Caucasus Mountains are located in southwestern Russia. The highest point in Russia is Mount Elbrus, an extinct volcano in the Caucasus range.
C.  The Central Siberian Plateau covers a large area of the country. Swiftly flowing rivers have carved out canyons. Mountains on the southeastern edge of the plateau form the boundary between Russia and China.
D.  In far Northeastern Russia, the Kamchatka Peninsula contains 23 active volcanoes.

Vast plains span nearly half of Russia:
A.  Most of European Russia is part of the North European Plain. Most large Russian cities are located in this region. The northern part of the plain has many lakes and swamps. The southern part has navigable waterways and a rich, black soil, known as chernozem, that supports farming.
B.  The West Siberian Plain lies east of the Ural Mountains. It is one of the worlds’ largest areas of flatland.

Many important bodies of water are found in Russia:
A.  Russia has the longest continuous coastline in the world. The Russian coast touches both the Arctic and Pacific Oceans. The Arctic coast is frozen most of the year.
B.  The Black Sea, in southwestern Russia, provides a warm-water outlet to the Mediterranean Sea.
C.  The Caspian Sea is actually a saltwater lake. It is the world’s largest inland body of water.
D.  Lake Baikal, located in southern Siberia is the world’s deepest freshwater lake.

Rivers (page 348) Russia’s longest rivers are located east of the Ural Mountains in Siberia.
Since most of Russia’s people live in western Russia, they often experience water shortages.
A.  The Volga River is important for European Russia. The river, its tributaries, and canals link the capital city of Moscow to the Baltic Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Sea of Azov. The river also provides Russia with hydroelectric power, which is generated by falling water. The Volga also provides the country with water for drinking and irrigation.
B.  Most of the rivers in Siberia, such as the Ob, Irtysh, Yenisey, and Lena, flow north to the Arctic Ocean. These rivers freeze in the winter. In the spring, the southern parts of the rivers thaw before the northern parts, creating floods and large swamps.

Natural Resources (page 349) Russia has abundant natural resources. Many of the resources, however, lie
in places that are difficult to reach. Russia has the greatest reserves of mineral resources in the world. It has large oil reserves and 50 percent of the world’s coal reserves. Russia also produces copper, silver, gold, lead, and salt. Russia is a leading producer of hydroelectric power.
Because of Russia’s cold climate, only about 10 percent of the land is usable for agriculture. Because of permafrost, a layer of frozen soil that lies beneath the surface of the ground, little farming occurs in northern Russia. Millions of acres of fertile farmland stretch from Ukraine to southwestern Siberia. This area produces crops such as wheat, rye, oats, and barley.

About one-fifth of the world’s forested lands are located in Russia, most in eastern Siberia. These forests supply much of the world’s timber. Commercial logging, however, is quickly depleting Russian forests.
Fishing is an important industry in Russia. Russia produces salmon from the Pacific Ocean and herring, cod, and halibut from the Arctic Ocean.

Chapter 14, Section 2
Terms to Know
tundra  - A vast, treeless plain (page 352)
 taiga  - A forest belt that covers two-fifths of European Russia and much of Siberia (page 353)
steppe - A temperate grassland area with dry summers and long, dry winters (page 355)

Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula experiences extremes in weather. Much of Russia has extreme cold and long winters.

Russia’s Climates and Vegetation (page 351) Most of Russia has a harsh climate with long, cold winters and short, cool summers. Eastern Siberia experiences the coldest winter temperatures. Most of Russia lies far away from the ocean and the moderating influences it can have on climate.

High Latitude Climates (page 352) Extremely cold winters and short summers characterize Russia’s high- latitude climates. Temperatures between winter and summer vary greatly. A vast, treeless plain called tundra covers much of Russia’s northern landscape. Almost the entire tundra climate region is located north of the Arctic Circle. The tundra covers about 10 percent of Russia. Because of a short growing season, only mosses, lichen, and dwarf shrubs grow there.
The subarctic climate region lies south of the tundra. Some of the world’s coldest temperatures occur in this climate region. The subarctic climate supports the taiga. This is a forest belt that covers two-fifths of European Russia and much of Siberia. The taiga is the world’s largest coniferous forest.

Russians have to adjust all aspects of their lives to live in the extremely cold climate. They use a great deal of energy to heat their dwellings. They also wear several layers of clothing made from wool or fur to protect themselves outdoors. Manufacturers use special kinds of materials to construct buildings and automobiles.
Mid-Latitude Climates (page 354) Most Russians live in Russia’s mid-latitude climates. These climates have milder winters and warmer summers than the high-latitude climates. A humid continental climate is found in most of Russia’s North European Plain. 

Mixed coniferous-deciduous forests are found in this climate. Soils are generally more fertile than in the taiga. Farther south in the mid-latitude climate region, The mixed forests merge into temperate grasslands. The fertile chernozem soil makes these grasslands ideal for growing crops such as wheat and barley.
A steppe climate region is located in a small area between the Black and Caspian Seas and a thin band along Russia’s border with Kazakhstan. The steppe climate region has dry summers and long, cold, dry winters. The steppe contains rich chernozem soil. Grasses, sunflowers, mint, and beans flourish in the steppe.

Chapter 13 Study Guide for Apollo Team

Chapter 13, Section 1
Terms to Know
European Union (EU) A trading community that unites much of western Europe (page 313)
Maastricht Treaty The treaty that set up the European Union (page 314)
heavy industry The manufacture of machinery and industrial equipment (page 317)
light industry The manufacturing of products, such as textiles or processed food, that do not require industrial raw materials (page 317) mixed farming Raising several kinds of crops and livestock on the same farm (page 317) farm cooperatives Organizations in which farmers share expenses and equipment in growing and selling farm products (page 317)
collective farms Government-owned farms in which farmers received wages plus a share of products and profits (page 317) state farms Government-owned farms in which farmers were paid wages (page 317) genetically modified food Food prepared from crops that have had their genes altered
(page 317)
organic farming Farming that uses natural substances instead of fertilizers and chemicals to increase crop yields (page 318)
Introduction (page 313) Europeans continue to keep their national identities. However, they are
also beginning to identify with the European region as a whole. Eastern European countries today are building democracies. They are also building closer ties to western Europe.
1.         What two changes are occurring in eastern European countries today?
Changing Economies (page 313) Europe today is one of the world’s largest manufacturing and trading regions. The European Union (EU) unites much of western Europe into one trading community. Many countries of eastern Europe are also build- ing market economies.
The steps toward European unity have been developing since the end of World War II. In 1992 some European governments met in Maastricht, the Netherlands, and signed the Maastricht Treaty. It set up the European Union. The goal of the EU was to make European economies competitive with the rest of the world by not restricting the movement of goods, services, and people across its members’ borders. It also wanted to establish a single European currency. The EU has worked to boost trade and to develop more efficient and productive economies.
The EU plans to extend membership to several eastern European countries. Since 1989, these countries have been moving from command economies to market economies. The changes have been difficult because workers are losing some of the social safety net provided by the communist system.
2.         How does the EU plan to make European economies competitive?
Industry (page 316) The Industrial Revolution started in Europe. In the 1800s, Europe’s large deposits of coal and iron led to the growth of heavy industry the
manufacture of machinery and industrial equipment. The largest industrial centers in Europe today are located in Germany, France, Italy, Poland, and the Czech Republic. Countries that lack industrial raw materials specialize in light industry, such as making textiles.
About 60 percent of the workforce in western Europe is employed by service industries, including banking and tourism. High-technology industries are a growing part of western Europe’s economy.
3.         What kinds of industries employ about 60 percent of workers in western Europeans?
Agriculture (page 317) More Europeans make a living from farming than from any other single economic activity. Western European farmers use advanced farming methods and equipment to make the best use of their limited agricultural area.
Mixed farming—raising several kinds of crops and livestock on the same farm—is common. In some countries, farmers are part of farm cooperatives. These are organizations in which farmers share equipment and expenses in growing and selling farm products. Being members of cooperatives helps farmers reduce costs and increase profits.
Farming in eastern Europe has changed since the end of communist rule. Under communism, farmers worked on government-owned collective farms, where they received wages plus a share of products and profits. Other farmers worked on state farms, where they did not share in the profits but instead were paid wages. With the growth of democracy in eastern Europe, farms are becoming privately owned.
Throughout Europe new farming methods have led to opposition. Many people have protested the sale of genetically modified foods. These are foods prepared from crops that have had their genes altered so they can grow bigger or be more resistant to pests. Those who oppose this method believe that it has not been tested enough to be sure that genetically modified foods are safe to eat. Some farmers, concerned about chemical use, rely on organic farming. They use natural substances instead of fertilizers and chemicals to increase crop yields.

Transportation and Communications (page 318) Railroads throughout Europe connect the region’s major cities and bring
natural resources to Europe’s industrial centers. High-speed rail lines operate in some western European countries. These railways cause less damage to the environment and are more economical than other forms of transportation. A well-developed highway system also links major European cities. Europe handles more than half of the world’s international shipping at its ports.
Communication satellites broadcast television programs throughout western Europe. The quality of telephone service varies throughout Europe. A large percentage of western Europeans use cellular phones, electronic mail, and the Internet to communicate. Eastern European governments have stopped censoring printed materials, which continue to shape public opinion throughout Europe.
Chapter 13, Section 2
Terms to Know
dry farming A way of farming that produces crops in dry areas without any irrigation (page 321) acid rain Precipitation of airborne acidic chemicals mixed with water (page 321)
meltwater The result of melting snow and ice (page 321)
acid deposition Wet or dry acid pollution that falls to the ground (page 321)
environmentalist Person concerned with the quality of the environment (page 322)
greenhouse effect The condition caused by carbon dioxide and other gases trapping the sun’s heat near the earth’s surface (page 322) global warming Long-term rise in the earth’s average temperature (page 322)
biologist Scientist who studies plant and animal life (page 324)
Introduction (page 320) Damage to the environment crosses national boundaries. Rapid industrialization in eastern Europe polluted air and waterways, destroyed forests, and damaged buildings. Today Europeans are working to reverse the effects of pollution.
1.         What has caused the pollution of eastern Europe’s environment?
Humans and the Environment (page 320) Europe’s physical environment has posed many challenges to Europe’s people. Earthquakes are a frequent occurrence in parts of southern Europe. Low rainfall has caused droughts. The dry climate has made dry farming necessary. Dry farming is a way of farming that does not use irrigation, but instead conserves the moisture in the soil.
In northwestern Europe, heavy storms have led to flooding. Violent winds and rain have caused loss of life and damage to property. Countries on the North Sea have built dams and dikes to control the flooding.
2.         What challenges has Europe’s physical environment presented to Europeans?
Pollution (page 321) The high concentration of industry and population in Europe has severely damaged the land, air, and water in certain areas. In one area of Poland, eastern Germany, and the Czech Republic known as the “black triangle,” soot covers the ground and the air smells of sulfur from smokestacks. Before 1989 eastern European countries had few laws to control pollution. Industrial growth was considered more important than environmental safe- ty. Eastern European countries today are making efforts to control pollution. The European Union requires pollution control from all its members.
In the 1960s industries built high smokestacks to carry pollution away from industrial sites. This pollution combined with moisture in the air to form acid rain, which fell on other countries. Acid rain has destroyed 35 percent of Hungary’s forests, 82 percent of Poland’s, and 73 percent of forests in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. It also damages lakes and rivers. In winter, snow carries industrial air pollution to the ground. In spring, meltwater, the result of melting snow and ice, carries acid-forming chemicals into lakes and rivers. Eventually the acids cause the death of fish. In addition, acid deposition—wet or dry acid pollution that falls to the ground—has damaged many of Europe’s historic buildings.
In eastern Europe, air pollution has resulted in a lower life expectancy for humans. It has also poisoned crops. Environmentalists, or people concerned with the quality of the environment, are studying the ways that air pollution has affected the earth’s atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and other gases normally trap the sun’s heat near the earth’s surface. This condition creates a greenhouse effect which helps plants grow. However, the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil has increased the amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Some scientists believe this increase is causing global warming—a rise in the earth’s average temperature. They believe that global warming could melt polar ice caps and mountain glaciers, causing coastal areas to be flooded. Dealing with global warming requires international cooperation, but the international community has done little to address the problem.
Water pollution is particularly serious in the Mediterranean region. Countries along the coast have dumped their waste into the sea. This has contaminated marine life and created health hazards for people. Agricultural runoff and raw sewage have also polluted Europe’s lakes and rivers.
3.         What problems has Europe experienced as a result of acid rain?
Reducing Pollution (page 323) Although much of Europe has been changed by human activity,
Europeans want to preserve the wilderness areas that are left. They are working to solve their environmental problems. For example, the European Union can take legal action against member countries who do not uphold environmental protection laws. European countries have protected buildings and statues with acid-resistant coating. They have added lime to some lakes to reduce acid levels. Scientists who study plant and animal life, or biologists, are researching the effects of acid levels on fish.
Pollution problems that cross national borders require international cooperation. The European Union (EU) has approved rules to protect endangered species and prevent the dumping of wastes from ships and airplanes. The EU also requires large companies to recycle their packaging waste.
Eastern European countries requesting admission to the European Union are required to meet the EU’s environmental standards before they can be admitted. Member countries in western Europe have converted many power plants from coal to cleaner-burning natural gas.